Chloramphenicol is used to treat animals with animal feed but is not safe for human consumption, AVA better look into this

New Straits Times
Monday, Nov 05, 2012

GEORGE TOWN, MALAYSIA – The Health Ministry has ordered all Ayamas products in the same batch that was found to contain a banned antibiotic be taken off the market.
Minister Datuk Seri Liow Tiong Lai said yesterday his ministry had ordered the withdrawal of the products pending tests.
“I am now waiting for the results of the tests done on the samples. We view this seriously and that is why we decide to withdraw the batch from the market.”
However, he said Ayamas products that were not from the same batch could continue to be sold. Liow was commenting on the Sarawak Veterinary Authority’s immediate ban on all Ayamas products following a random test where traces of Chloramphenicol were found.
Chloramphenicol is used to treat animals but is not safe for human consumption and, therefore, cannot be used in food processing.
On Saturday, Sarawak Assistant Agriculture Minister Mong Dagang said he believed the problem could lie in the source of the chickens and not during the processing part.
Chloramphenicol is banned in most Western countries although it is available in Southeast Asia. The drug is known to cause blood disorders such as aplastic and hypoplastic anaemia.
Any interactions between Chloramphenicol and diabetic medicines, or even vitamin B12 supplements, may cause allergic reactions, including stomach upset, diarrhoea, headache, nausea and vomiting.
Earlier, Liow said the ministry had approved two mega projects for Penang Hospital next year. A new women and children’s block will be constructed to ease congestion.
“The present hospital ward is 130 years old and in a dilapidated condition. Sometimes, the ceiling will fall off and this is not good,” he said, adding that the old structure would be demolished in stages to make way for the new RM125 million (S$50 million) building.
Liow said the wards in the new building would have a 300-bed capacity.
Speaking after a dialogue with the state Visitors’ Board members, Liow said a new multi-storey hospital would also be built in mainland Seberang Jaya.

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Baby's Stroke is caused by MND

Sunday, Nov 04, 2012
The New Paper

KUALA LUMPUR – The birthday cake was ready.
So was the present – a pretty skirt for baby girl Siew Jing Yew, known affectionately as Yew Yew, who turned one on Oct 16.
But what was supposed to be a day of celebration turned into a nightmare for Yew Yew’s parents.

The baby was warded in a Kuala Lumpur hospital on Oct 14 after coming down with a cough and fever.
Initially, 28-year-old housewife Chin Yu Fung thought her daughter would recover in time to celebrate her first birthday at home.
Sadly, it was not meant to be.
On the day that Yew Yew turned one, doctors broke the bad news that she had suffered a stroke, her parents said.
Her father, Siew Chee Leong, told Malaysian paper Guangming Daily that they had noticed that she was coughing on Oct 14.
When they took her to hospital, doctors told them that everything seemed fine, the 34-year-old furniture sales supervisor said.
But the next day, at around 6pm, he noticed Yew Yew clenching her left hand and shivering. It turned out she had cramps. She was placed under observation.
On her birthday, doctors said she had a stroke. More bad news followed last Thursday.
A virus infection had caused bleeding in Yew Yew’s right brain.
Mr Siew told Guangming: “I’m heartbroken. The news about her condition just keeps getting worse every day. At first, we accepted it when she had a stroke.
“But then doctors said she had internal bleeding. The last few days have been really trying.”
The couple said a large portion of Yew Yew’s brain cells have died from a lack of oxygen, which could affect her learning abilities in future.
Looking at her daughter hooked to various tubes, an upset Madam Chin said: “Every time I play with Yew Yew, she would smile so happily. We love her so much.”

Yew Yew underwent two operations and was placed in intensive care.
The couple need more than RM50,000 (S$20,000) to pay the medical bill.
To help raise the money, Mr Siew’s friend has set up a Facebook page called “Need Help! 1-year-old Baby got Stroke”.
As of 7pm on Friday, the page had received more than 1,500 likes and over 3,500 people had talked about it.
The Facebook page provides updates of Yew Yew’s condition, including a post on Wednesday that said the baby was awake and able to recognise Madam Chin.
“(The) doctor mentioned that she may not be able to do that (recognise her mother) but she did! This is a huge progress.”
A post later that day thanked donors, saying the family had “achieved our targeted amount”.
As Yew Yew’s road to recovery begins, her parents remain hopeful that she will be able to play with them once more, wearing the birthday skirt.
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Respiratory tract infection: cold, flu, pneumonia, bronchitis, sinusitis. Some medications, such as ACE inhibitors taken to lower blood pressure, can cause chronic coughs in some people. A virus infection can lead to stroke and affect the brain cells when the motor neurons are affected, it is possible to cure but research work is still ongoing.
http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/motor_neuron_diseases/detail_motor_neuron_diseases.htm
– Contributed by Oogle.

The Cure for Type II Diabetes using Nano Technology

“Nano Technology will make great leaps and bounds in the research of molecular chemistry and biology to be the next tranport system for the cure of diseases where the development of drugs of all kinds can be used to target specific cells and organs, even a greater understanding of the composite of matter, to create water into wine, by manipulating the structure of matter.” – Contributed by Oogle.

Warning : Please do not take your insulin injection when you are fasting or on a drip without food as the toxity can inflict damages especially with a low sugar count.

The Cure for Type II Diabetes

The problem
Most patients inject insulin at the abdomen area and by the time the insulin reaches the feet and the eyes, the dosage is too little for prevention, but if you increase the dosage even higher, there will be toxity in the abdomen area.
The Cure and Solution
Using Nano technology, it is possible to encapsulate a molecule of insulin via a transport system which will target the molecules and DNA of lets say the eyes, where the info and target will be compared until it reaches its destination to release the payload. As such, the future of medicine will be using this technology to treat any organs or areas in the body, where even the payload and the frequency can be controlled, a cure for all diseases.
– Contributed by Oogle.  

rDNA

Molecular cloning is the laboratory process used to create recombinant DNA.[1][2][3][4] It is one of two widely-used methods (along with polymerase chain reaction, abbr. PCR) used to direct the replication of any specific DNA sequence chosen by the experimentalist. The fundamental difference between the two methods is that molecular cloning involves replication of the DNA within a living cell, while PCR replicates DNA in the test tube, free of living cells.
Formation of recombinant DNA requires a cloning vector, a DNA molecule that will replicate within a living cell. Vectors are generally derived from plasmids or viruses, and represent relatively small segments of DNA that contain necessary genetic signals for replication, as well as additional elements for convenience in inserting foreign DNA, identifying cells that contain recombinant DNA, and, where appropriate, expressing the foreign DNA. The choice of vector for molecular cloning depends on the choice of host organism, the size of the DNA to be cloned, and whether and how the foreign DNA is to be expressed.[5] The DNA segments can be combined by using a variety of methods, such as restriction enzyme/ligase cloning or Gibson assembly.
In standard cloning protocols, the cloning of any DNA fragment essentially involves seven steps: (1) Choice of host organism and cloning vector, (2) Preparation of vector DNA, (3) Preparation of DNA to be cloned, (4) Creation of recombinant DNA, (5) Introduction of recombinant DNA into the host organism, (6) Selection of organisms containing recombinant DNA, (7) Screening for clones with desired DNA inserts and biological properties.[4] These steps are described in some detail in a related article (molecular cloning).
Following transplantation into the host organism, the foreign DNA contained within the recombinant DNA construct may or may not be expressed. That is, the DNA may simply be replicated without expression, or it may be transcribed and translated so that a recombinant protein is produced. Generally speaking, expression of a foreign gene requires restructuring the gene to include sequences that are required for producing a mRNA molecule that can be used by the host’s translational apparatus (e.g. promoter, translational initiation signal, and transcriptional terminator).[6] Specific changes to the host organism may be made to improve expression of the ectopic gene. In addition, changes may be needed to the coding sequences as well, to optimize translation, make the protein soluble, direct the recombinant protein to the proper cellular or extracellular location, and stabilize the protein from degradation.[7

  • Recombinant human insulin. Recombinant insulin has almost completely replaced insulin obtained from animal sources (e.g. pigs and cattle) for the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes. A variety of different recombinant insulin preparations are in widespread use.[11] Recombinant insulin is synthesized by inserting the human insulin gene into E. coli, which then produces insulin for human use.[12]

No side effects, but what happens when you play GOD?

Updated 01:35 PM Oct 25, 2012

NEW YORK – Scientists in Oregon have created embryos with genes from one man and two women, using a provocative technique that could someday be used to prevent babies from inheriting certain rare incurable diseases.
The researchers at the Oregon Health and Sciences University (OHSU) said they are not using the embryos to produce children, and it is not clear when or even if this technique will be put to use.
But it has already stirred a debate over its risks and ethics in Britain, where scientists did similar work a few years ago.
The British experiments, reported in 2008, led to headlines about the possibility someday of babies with three parents. But that is an overstatement. The DNA from the second woman amounts to less than 1 per cent of the embryo’s genes and it is not the sort that makes a child look like Mum or Dad. The procedure is simply a way of replacing some defective genes that sabotage the normal workings of cells.
The British government is asking for public comment on the technology before it decides whether to allow its use in the future. One concern it cites is whether such DNA alteration could be an early step down a slippery slope towards “designer babies” – ordering up, say, a petite, blue-eyed girl or tall, dark-haired boy.
Questions have also arisen about the safety of the technique, not only for the baby who results from the egg, but also for the child’s descendants.
In June, an influential British bioethics group concluded that the technology would be ethical to use if proven safe and effective. An expert panel in Britain said last year that there was no evidence that the technology was unsafe but urged further study.
Dr Laurie Zoloth, a bioethicist at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, said that safety problems might not show up for several generations.
She said she hopes the United States will follow Britain’s lead in having a wide-ranging discussion of the technology.
While the kind of diseases it seeks to fight can be terrible, “this might not be the best way to address it”, Dr Zoloth said.
Over the past few years, scientists have reported that such experiments produced healthy monkeys and that tests in human eggs showed encouraging results. The Oregon scientists reported yesterday that they have produced about a dozen early human embryos and found the technique is highly effective in replacing DNA.
The genes they want to replace are not the kind most people think of, which are found in the nucleus of cells and influence traits such as eye colour and height. Rather, these genes reside outside the nucleus in energy-producing structures called mitochondria. These genes are passed along only by mothers, not fathers.
About one in every 5,000 children inherits a disease caused by defective mitochondrial genes. The defects can cause many rare diseases with a host of symptoms, including strokes, epilepsy, dementia, blindness, deafness, kidney failure and heart disease.
The new technique would allow a woman to give birth to a baby who inherits her nucleus DNA but not her mitochondrial DNA.
Doctors would need unfertilised eggs from the patient and a healthy donor. They would remove the nucleus DNA from the donor eggs and replace it with nucleus DNA from the patient’s eggs. So, they would end up with eggs that have the prospective mother’s nucleus DNA, but the donor’s healthy mitochondrial DNA.
In a report published online yesterday by the journal Nature, Dr Shoukhrat Mitalipov and others at OHSU report transplanting nucleus DNA into 64 unfertilised eggs from healthy donors. After fertilisation, 13 eggs showed normal development and went on to form early embryos.
The researchers also reported that four monkeys born in 2009 from eggs that had DNA transplants remain healthy, giving some assurance on safety.
Dr Mitalipov said that the researchers hope to get federal approval to test the procedure in women, but that current restrictions on using federal money on human embryo research stand in the way of such studies.
The research was funded by the university and the Leducq Foundation in Paris.
Dr Douglass Turnbull of Newcastle University in Britain, whose team has transplanted DNA between eggs using a different technique, called the new research “very important and encouraging” in showing that such transplants could work.
But “clearly, safety is an issue” with either technique if it is applied to humans, he said. AP

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There is no side effects, what remains is a ethical question when trying to play God, DNA has it’s purpose to retain it’s characteristics for survival of the fittest, but when you mess with nature, and there is wide spread use, one day there will be consequences which can wipe out the entire race of human beings, it is alrite if it is only use to save a precious life, it should be strictly controlled and ethical questions need to be answered to save a life. In future there will be a walk around where you do not need to merge 3 embryos, where it is possible to replace the mutant DNA and use it to cure diseases without a cut and paste method, by re-creating the portion from scratch, without affecting the ethical question with messing the order of nature by playing God.
– Contributed by Oogle.

Heart Disease is caused by consuming too much animal fats where there is no way of disposal which ends up at the heart

Wednesday, Oct 24, 2012
AsiaOne

SINGAPORE – Researchers at the National Heart Centre Singapore (NHCS) have successfully created a human heart cell model of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), an inherited heart muscle disorder which puts one at high risk of developing life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.
The research team discovered that key characteristics of the disease, such as abnormal “fatty changes” and altered distribution of proteins involved in cell-cell connections (called desmosomal proteins) are reproduced in the heart cells. This novel cellular model for studying the disease could help to improve understanding on how these mutations lead to arrhythmias and clinical manifestations of ARVC.
The study, the first of its kind in the world, was published in the European Heart Journal, a top ranking international peer-reviewed journal, in July 2012.
Using a technique based on the revolutionary iPSC technology of transforming skin cells into stem cells developed by Professor Shinya Yamanaka, winner of the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine, the team developed the human heart cell model using patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology which converts skin samples from an ARVC patient into heart muscle cells on a petri dish outside the body.
The NHCS research team has taken a step further by developing a key clinical application of the iPSC technology by replicating one’s own heart cells outside the body for the study of genetic cardiovascular diseases.
Associate Professor Philip Wong, Director, Research and Development Unit, NHCS said, “For the first time, we have created a ‘crystal ball’ of the disease outside the body, to look into the patient’s detailed genetic makeup and its relationship to the manifestation of disease. There would be significant opportunities now to safely study the effects of environmental factors and treatments, including gene and drug therapy, on such diseases as they do not have to be tested on patients in the first instance.”
ARVC occurs in an estimated 1 in 2,000 to 1 in 5,000 people. The disorder may be under-diagnosed as it can be difficult to detect in people with mild or no symptoms.
“Although ARVC is a rare condition, it is more commonly detected in younger individuals, in their 20s and 30s, particularly in males, and is more lethal in this age group,” said Dr Reginald Liew, Deputy Director, Research and Development Unit, NHCS and principal investigator of the study.
ARVC may not have any symptoms especially in the early stages. Common symptoms if they do occur include palpitations, light-headedness, and fainting. Those with family history of sudden cardiac death are at higher risk.
The team has also been successful in using the iPSC technology to replicate other inherited heart rhythm diseases such as long QT syndrome (LQTS) and Brugada Syndrome. These diseases are caused by mutations in genes coding for proteins that control the electrical activity of the heart which can lead to ventricular arrhythmias, blackouts and sudden cardiac death.
The 10-member research team comprises six research scientists, two clinician scientists and two staff from the Electron Microscopy Unit, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore. The three-year project which started in 2010, was supported with a research grant from Goh Foundation and administered through Duke-NUS.
“The next stage is for us to use this ARVC model to understand more about the disease and to specifically use such models to risk stratify patients with risk of cardiac arrhythmias. Such models will allow us to measure risk in individuals safely and tailor individual preventive programmes and treatments to patients in a more precise manner, i.e. the practice of ‘stratified and personalised’ medicine,” said Associate Professor Wong.
ellenja@sph.com.sg
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That is the reason why I do not eat fats from char siew pork or satay, every time I will throw away, without an intake of animal fats, there is no risks to heart diseases. A daily dosage of soya bean milk will prevent the clotting of your arteries, where the risks will be reduced to below 1%.
– Contributed by Oogle.

Mutated DNA gene sequencing can be reversed engineered

Neuroblastoma has been linked to problems with the gene NBPF10 in relation to copy-number variants which cause the 1q21.1 deletion syndrome and 1q21.1 duplication syndrome.[16]

“Please see my solution below (highlight in red) which some scientists are working on for the treatment of cancer especially related to the DNA.” – Contributed by Oogle.

Synthetic Biology

Wyss scientists are learning how to quickly and cheaply manufacture the building blocks of life – DNA, RNA, proteins, and cells – and to generate almost unlimited variations in their shape and structure. Platform faculty and staff leverage automation and selections to sort through these molecular libraries to discover the ones that meet their needs. This approach offers an unprecedented ability to harness the natural process of evolution at an accelerated pace, which provides scientists with new tools for studying and treating disease. This approach is being used to evolve human antibodies that will steer drugs and nanomaterials to specific organ sites, as well as transcription factor gene circuits, which can reprogram cells in predictable ways.

Reengineering DNA synthesis

Improvements in DNA technology have tracked a Moore’s law-like pattern, showing an exponential reduction in DNA sequencing costs over the past two decades. However, to enable the next generation of synthetic biology, a quantum jump in DNA synthesis capability is needed. An ability to produce long, multi-gene length DNA molecules on demand, at low cost, and in a form amenable to directed evolution, selection, and in vitro translation into proteins will transform all fields of biology. It will also make DNA itself a cost-effective, biodegradable, and biocompatible building material for medical applications and facilitate our work on DNA origami-based Programmable Nanomaterials.

Cellular reprogramming 

Institute faculty and scientists are working with Synthetic Biology Platform staff to push technical boundaries in various ways in order to develop transformative new technologies. One team is re-engineering photosynthetic bacteria to produce hydrogen and other fuels – in essence, transforming groups of cells into biological solar panels. Others are constructing genetic memory devices, including on-off switches and counters, that effectively function like living transistors for use in integrated biochip devices. Another team is developing powerful new methods to assemble complex shapes out of DNA for gene delivery. Some Institute scientists are even exploring the possibility of using cellular reprogramming strategies to reboot cancers so that they stop growing and turn into normal tissue. And all of these efforts are being accelerated and advanced by new methods for rapid, low-cost synthesis of multi-gene length DNAs that are being pioneered by our platform engineers.

http://wyss.harvard.edu/viewpage/101/biomaterials-evolution

The start of progress where Brain diseases can be stopped, even solving Erectile Disfunction where brain cells control the flow of blood

By Jennifer O’Brien on October 10, 2012
A Phase I clinical trial led by investigators from the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) and sponsored by Stem Cells Inc., showed that neural stem cells successfully engrafted into the brains of patients and appear to have produced myelin.

The study, published in Wednesday’s issue of Science Translational Medicine, also demonstrated that the neural stem cells were safe in the patients’ brains one year post transplant.

The results of the investigation, designed to test safety and preliminary efficacy, are encouraging, said principal investigator David H. Rowitch, MD, PhD, a professor of pediatrics and neurological surgery at UCSF, chief of neonatology at UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute
“For the first time, we have evidence that transplanted neural stem cells are able to produce new myelin in patients with a severe myelination disease,” said Nalin Gupta, MD, PhD, associate professor of neurological surgery and pediatrics and chief of pediatric neurological surgery at UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital, and co-principal investigator of the PMD clinical trial. 
“We also saw modest gains in neurological function, and while these can’t necessarily be attributed to the intervention because this was an uncontrolled trial with a small number of patients, the findings represent an important first step that strongly supports further testing of this approach as a means to treat the fundamental pathology in the brain of these patients.”
The study, one of the first neural stem cell trials ever conducted in the United States, is emblematic of UCSF’s pioneering role in the stem cell field. In 1981, Gail Martin, PhD, professor of anatomy, co-discovered embryonic stem cells in mice. In 2001, Roger Pedersen, PhD, professor emeritus of obstetrics, gynecology and reproductive sciences, derived two of the first human embryonic stem cell lines. On Monday, Shinya Yamanaka, MD, PhD, of the UCSF-affiliated Gladstone Institutes and Kyoto University, received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery that adult cells can be reprogrammed to behave like embryonic stem cells. 

Landmark Study in Stem Cell Field

In the trial, human neural stem cells developed by Stem Cells, Inc., of Newark, California, were injected directly into the brains of four young children with an early-onset, fatal form of a condition known as Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD). 

This image illustrates direct injection of human neural stem cells into the brai  
This image illustrates direct injection of human neural stem cells into the brain’s white matter, which is composed of bundles of nerve axons. There is lack of myelin, an insulating coating, in the severe pediatric condition Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD). Over time, some stem cells become myelinating oligodendrocytes as reported in the papers from Uchida et al. and Gupta et al. Image by Kenneth Probst.
In PMD, an inherited genetic defect prevents brain cells called oligodendrocytes from making myelin, a fatty material that insulates white matter which serves as a conduit for nervous impulses throughout the brain. Without myelin sheathing, white matter tracts short-circuit like bare electrical wires and are unable to correctly propagate nerve signals, resulting in neurological dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Patients with early-onset PMD cannot walk or talk, often have trouble breathing and undergo progressive neurological deterioration leading to death between ages 10 and 15.The disease usually occurs in males.
Multiple sclerosis and certain forms of cerebral palsy also involve damage to oligodendrocytes and subsequent demyelination.
Before and after the transplant procedures in the children with PMD, which were conducted between 2010-2011, the patients were given standard neurological examinations and developmental assessments, and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). “MRI is the most stringent non-invasive method we have of assessing myelin formation,” said Rowitch.
The investigators found evidence that the stem cells had successfully engrafted, receiving blood and nutrients from the surrounding tissue and integrating into the brain, a process that Rowitch likened to “a plant taking root.”
This finding was particularly significant, he said, because the cells were not the patients’ own stem cells. “It would have been just as likely to expect that the patients would have rejected them,” he said.
The investigators also found indirect evidence that the stem cells had become oligodendrocytes and were producing myelin. “There is no non-invasive way to test this definitively,” cautioned Rowitch, “but our MRI findings suggest myelination in the regions that have been transplanted.”
Once transplanted and engrafted, neural stem cells have the potential to differentiate into a number of different brain cell types, depending on the area of the brain into which they are inserted. The sites chosen for the Phase I study were known from animal studies to be the most likely to result in the formation of oligodendrocytes.
In an animal study by another team of investigators, at Oregon Health & Science University’s Papé Family Pediatric Research Institute, published in the same issue of Science Translational Medicine, Stem Cells Inc’s neural stem cells were injected into mouse models and became oligodendrocytes and formed myelin. “The animal study is consistent with the MRI findings from the clinical trial and further supports the possibility of donor-derived myelination in human patients,” said Rowitch.
“This is a landmark study for the field,” said Arnold R. Kriegstein, MD, PhD, director of the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCSF. “Without such studies in human patients, we won’t really know how transplanted cells behave – whether they disperse or migrate, whether they engraft or degenerate and die, whether immune-suppressing regimens really work or not. It’s only through these investigations that we will be able to refine the necessary procedures and technologies and make progress toward cell-based therapies for this disease and related disorders.”
The Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine, one of the premier stem cell programs in the world, is focused on understanding the ways stem cells function, with the goal of developing therapies to treat a broad range of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and neurological diseases.
Co-investigators of the clinical team are Jonathan Strober, MD, director of Clinical Services for Child Neurology and Director of the Muscula
r Dystrophy Clinic at UCSF Children’s Hospital, and Nalin Gupta, MD, PhD, chief of Pediatric Neurological Surgery at UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital.
Other co-authors of the study are Roland G. Henry, PhD, Sang-Mo Kang, MD, Daniel Lim, MD, PhD, Monica Bucci, MD, Eduardo Caverzasi, MD, Laura Gaetano, PhD, Maria Luisa Mandelli, PhD, Tamara Ryan, RN, Rachel Perry, RN, Jody Farrell, RN, MSN, Rita J. Jeremy, PhD, Mary Ulman, RN and A. James Barkovitch, MD, of UCSF, and Stephen L. Huhn, MD, of StemCells, Inc.
The study was sponsored and supported by StemCells, Inc.

UCSF staff Tamara Ryan, Rachel Perry, Mary Ulman, and Drs. Barkovitch, Henry, Jeremy and Kang received partial salary support from the sponsor.